MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Which element of motivation is a measure of intensity or drive?
Maslow’s theory is a hierarchy because ________.
needs are always truly satisfied
needs are satisfied sequentially
According to Maslow, a person stranded on a desert island would ________ before he or she worried about making weapons.
establish his or her status on the island
Maslow believes that higher–order needs ________.
________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.
Self–actualization Need Theory
Belongingness Need Theory
Workers with a Theory Y point of view would be likely to ________.
love their job more than the money they make
just want to collect a paycheck
avoid work unless rewards were high
avoid responsibility for their actions
According to Herzberg, which kind of characteristics are most closely associated with job dissatisfaction?
extrinsic things that come from the outside
intrinsic things that come from within themselves
According to Herzberg’s Motivation–Hygiene theory, ________ are associated with job satisfaction.
Which three needs are recognized in McClelland’s three–needs theory?
power, comfort, stimulation
achievement, power, affiliation
security, self–interest, affiliation
achievement, power, security
Which of the following suggests that humans have an innate desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships?
Which is the best summary of goal–setting theory?
Easy goals make for happier employees.
Specific goals increase performance.
Always make your goals a bit higher than you can reach.
Goals make no difference in performance.
The job characteristics model (JCM) maintains that ________ is critical to motivating workers.
The JCM contends that these dimensions are required for a high level of motivation among workers. Meaningful work refers to works require various skills, clear task identity and significant jobs.
autonomy, feedback, good management
meaningful work, autonomy, independence
meaningful work, autonomy, feedback
high pay, autonomy, feedback
A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outputs from a job to the ratio of relevant others is known as ________.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned with ________.
comparing their rewards to those of others
making enough money to live on
employers sharing profits
justice for all people who work
In equity theory, a worker’s “self” category compares a person’s outcomes–to–input ratio with ________.
the person’s own standards and expectations
the standards and expectations of other workers
In equity theory, an underrewarded individual ________ the work he or she does.
In equity theory, procedural justice is concerned with which of the following?
comparing fairness between different organizations
comparing output–to–input ratios among individuals
determining how honest one’s boss is
determining how fair the system is
In expectancy theory, a person may have the ability to reach a certain goal but lack motivation because ________.
the person’s desire to reach the goal is too strong
the person has no strong desire to reach the goal
The key to expectancy theory is that an individual’s goals ________.
are not too high and not too low
match the rewards provided by the organization
match the goals of fellow workers and superiors
If salespeople in John’s company meet their sales goals for the month, they are given an all–expense–paid trip to a Denver Broncos football game. Football is not one of John’s favorite sports, and the Denver Broncos are definitely not John’s favorite team. John’s performance might be influenced by the ________ part of Vroom’s expectancy theory.
Expectancy theory and goal–setting theory align well with American workers because American culture places a strong emphasis on ________.
collectivism and achievement
low power distance and high uncertainty avoidance
individualism and high power distance
achievement and individualism
________ allow companies to accommodate the needs of workers with nonstandard family situations.
Expanded workweeks and job sharing
Flextime, compressed workweeks, and job sharing
Flextime and expanded workweeks
Which of the following is NOT a common way that employee recognition programs recognize worker achievements?
added worker responsibilities
a handwritten note of thanks
a public announcement of achievement
Acme Corporation (Scenario)
Acme Corporation’s management feels that employees could be more motivated by their jobs. The jobs were enriched earlier and some improvements were seen in motivation.
To increase the motivation through enrichment, Acme decides to increase the meaningfulness of the work. This might be done by ________.
giving workers more feedback
increasing autonomy of workers
giving workers less feedback
Acme managers explained how important their product was to the world economy. Which core dimension in the job characteristics model is this?
The Acme managers developed a program that allows the employees to have a large degree of freedom carrying out their jobs. Which core dimension are they providing?
Application of Early Theories of Motivation (Scenario)
Three managers work at the Pabco Company. Aaron really “cracks the whip” on his employees and firmly believes in strict controls and punishment for those employees who do not perform to company expectations.
Zach has very few controls and believes that as long as people know what their objectives are, they will exercise self–control and self–direction.
Susan has been trying to improve working conditions and manager–employee relations to increase the level of productivity in her department.
Zach is what type of manager?
Susan was trying to use what type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity?
Zach was using which type of Herzberg factors to increase productivity levels?
Please read the case application “Bringing the real world to life — Google searching for? and answer the following questions:
a. Google is doing a lot for its employees, but obviously not enough to retain several of its talented employees. Using what you’ve learned from studying the various motivation theories, what does this situation tell you about employee motivation?
b. What do you think is Google’s biggest challenge in keeping employees motivated?
Talented and educated employees of Google helps in meeting its extraordinary opportunities.
c. If you were managing a team of Google employees, how would you keep them motivated?